Tics are fast, repetitive muscle movements that result in sudden and difficult to control body jolts or sounds.
They're fairly common in childhood and typically first appear at around five years of age. Very occasionally they can start in adulthood.
Tics aren't usually serious and normally improve over time. But they can be frustrating and interfere with everyday activities.
Tourette's syndrome ↗, a term that's used when tics have lasted for more than a year, is covered separately.
Types of tics
There are many types of tic. Some affect body movement (motor tics) and others result in a sound (vocal or phonic tics).
Examples of tics include:
- blinking, wrinkling the nose or grimacing
- jerking or banging the head
- clicking the fingers
- touching other people or things
- coughing, grunting or sniffing
- repeating a sound or phrase – in a small number of cases, this may be something obscene or offensive
They often start with an unpleasant sensation that builds up in the body until relieved by the tic – known as an urge – although they can sometimes be partly suppressed.
Read more about common types of tics ↗.
When to see your GP
Tics aren't usually serious and they don't damage the brain.
You don't always need to see your GP if they're mild and not causing problems. Sometimes they can disappear as quickly as they appear.
See your GP if you're concerned about your or your child's tics, you need support or advice, or the tics:
- occur very regularly, or become more frequent or severe
- cause emotional or social problems, such as embarrassment, bullying ↗ or social isolation
- cause pain or discomfort (some tics can cause the person to accidentally hurt themselves)
- interfere with daily activities, school or work
- are accompanied by other worrying moods or behaviours, such as anger, depression ↗ or self-harm ↗
Your GP should be able to diagnose a tic from a description of it and, if possible, seeing it. Recording a short video can be helpful, but be careful not to draw too much attention to the tic while filming as this can make it worse.
Treatments for tics
Treatment isn't always needed if a tic is mild and isn't causing any other problems. Self-help tips ↗, such as avoiding stress or tiredness, are often very helpful for the majority of people.
If a tic is more severe and is affecting everyday activities, therapies that aim to reduce how often tics occur may be recommended.
The main therapies for tics are:
- Habit reversal therapy – this aims to help you or your child learn intentional movements that "compete" with tics, so the tic can't happen at the same time.
- Exposure with response prevention (ERP) – this aims to help you or your child get used to the unpleasant sensations that are often felt just before a tic, which can stop the tic occurring.
There are also medicines that can help reduce tics. These may be used alongside psychological therapies or after trying these therapies unsuccessfully.
Read more about how tics are treated ↗.
How long do tics last?
In most cases, tics will improve significantly over time or stop completely.
Sometimes they may just last a few months, but often they tend to come and go over several years.
They tend to be at their most severe from around eight years of age until the teenage years, and usually start to improve after puberty ↗.
Research suggests that:
- one in three to four people won't have any tics by the time they're an adult
- one in three people will only have mild tics as an adult
- one in three people will have more severe tics as an adult
Causes of tics
It's not clear exactly what causes tics. They're thought to be due to changes in the parts of the brain that control movement.
They often seem to run in families, and there's likely to be a genetic cause in many cases. They also often occur alongside other conditions, such as:
Tics can sometimes be triggered by taking illegal drugs ↗, such as cocaine or amphetamines, and are occasionally caused by more serious health conditions such as cerebral palsy ↗ or Huntington's disease ↗.