Epididymitis is where a tube (the epididymis) at the back of the testicles becomes swollen and painful. It's often caused by an infection and is usually treated with antibiotics.
If the testicles are also affected, it may be called epididymo-orchitis.
Check if it's epididymitis
Symptoms of epididymitis may include:
- sudden or gradual pain in 1 or both of your testicles (balls)
- the bag of skin containing your testicles (scrotum) feeling tender, warm and swollen
- a build-up of fluid around your testicle (a hydrocele) that feels like a lump or swelling ↗
You may have other symptoms depending on the cause – for example, difficulty peeing, or a white, yellow or green discharge from the tip of the penis.
Causes of epididymitis
It can also be caused by a urinary tract infection (UTI) ↗, but UTIs are less common in men.
A UTI is more likely if you have:
- an enlarged prostate gland ↗
- a urinary catheter ↗
- recently had surgery to the groin, prostate gland or bladder
Sometimes a cause can't be found.
See a GP if you have:
- a lump in your testicles
- swollen testicles
- a change in the shape of your testicles
- a change in the way your testicles feel
- 1 testicle that's become bigger than the other
- aching or discomfort in your testicles that doesn't go away
Lumps in the testicles can be a sign of testicular cancer. This is easier to treat if it's found early.
Sexual health clinics can help with epididymitis
You can also get treatment for epididymitis at a sexual health clinic.
They can provide the same antibiotics you'd get at your GP surgery.
Many sexual health clinics also offer a walk-in service, where you don't need an appointment.
Go to A&E if you get sudden, unbearable pain in your testicles or tummy
This could be caused by your testicle becoming twisted and needs to be treated in hospital as soon as possible.
What happens at your appointment
You'll usually need some tests first to find out the cause.
These may include:
- a groin examination
- a swab of the tube that carries pee out of the body (urethra) – to test for infection
- urine and blood tests
- a rectal examination ↗ – to check for problems with your prostate
Treatment for epididymitis
If you have an infection, you'll usually be given antibiotics. You should start to feel better within a few days, but it may take up to 2 weeks to fully recover.
It's important to finish the whole course of antibiotics, even if you start to feel better.
There are some things you can do while you recover to help ease pain and swelling and prevent any further problems.
- take painkillers such as ibuprofen to help with the pain
- hold a cold pack (or a bag of frozen peas wrapped in a tea towel) on your groin
- wear underwear that supports your scrotum
- do not have sex if you have gonorrhoea or chlamydia until you have finished the full course of treatment