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Arterial thrombosis

Arterial thrombosis is a blood clot in an artery. Find out why it happens and how it can be treated.

3 October 2018


Arterial thrombosis is a blood clot in an artery, which can be very serious because it can stop blood reaching important organs.

Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body and the heart muscle.

Symptoms and risks of arterial thrombosis

A blood clot doesn't usually have any symptoms until it blocks the flow of blood to part of the body.

This can cause several serious problems, including:

These conditions are all medical emergencies. Get medical help straight away if you or someone in your care is experiencing these symptoms.

Causes of arterial thrombosis

Arterial thrombosis usually affects people whose arteries are clogged with fatty deposits. This is known as atherosclerosis ↗.

These deposits cause the arteries to harden and narrow over time and increase the risk of blood clots.

The following can increase your risk of developing atherosclerosis:

Sometimes arterial thrombosis can be due to a condition that makes your blood more likely to clot, such as atrial fibrillation ↗ or antiphospholipid syndrome ↗.

Reduce your risk of arterial thrombosis

It's not possible to prevent blood clots entirely, but you can reduce your risk by lowering your risk of atherosclerosis.

The main things you can do are:

If you're at a high risk of getting a blood clot, your doctor may also recommend taking medication such as:

Treatments for arterial thrombosis

If you develop arterial thrombosis, it may need to be treated with medication or surgery.

Treatments include:

  • injections of a medicine called a thrombolytic that can dissolve some blood clots
  • an operation to remove the clot (embolectomy)
  • an operation to widen the affected artery – for example, an angioplasty (where a hollow tube is placed in the artery to hold it open)
  • surgery to divert blood around the blocked artery – for example, a coronary artery bypass graft ↗ (where a blood vessel taken from another part of the body is used to bypass a blockage in the artery that supplies the heart muscle)

Other types of blood clot

As well as arterial thrombosis, there are several other types of blood clot, including: