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Vaccines across the world

I am going on a one-year round-the-world trip with my family (2 adults aged 38 and two children aged 7 and 9). We plan to visit: Sri Lanka, Malaysia (mainland), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia (Java, Sulawesi, Bali, Lombok, Nusa), Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Japan, Canada, USA, Iceland. Please can you advise which vaccinations are recommended and if any are available free on NHS, or what price we should expect to pay.

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The answer

It is important to confirm primary courses and boosters are up to date as recommended for life in Britain. Please note we will be including detailed information for you for each destination you have listed, but with regard to Yellow fever vaccination, the exact requirements depend on your route/order of the countries visited. Yellow fever vaccination certificate is required for travelers arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission and for travelers having transited more than 12 hours through an airport of a country with yellow fever transmission.

As per the table below we have created for you, Courses/boosters are vaccines that are advised and necessary whereas vaccines to consider are ones that depend on the type of holiday you are undertaking ie, back packing, where you are staying etc.

As per your plan of countries to visit here is a list of the vaccinations that are advised or one to consider.


CountryCourses/Boosters advisedVaccines to consider
Sri LankaHep A, tetanus, typhoid
Yellow fever.
Hep B, Japanese encephalitis, rabies
Malaysia mainlandHep A, tetanus. Yellow feverCholera, diphtheria, Hep B,Japanese encephalitis, rabies, typhoid
ThailandHep A, tetanus, yellow feverCholera, diphtheria, Hep B, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, typhoid
LaosDip, hep a, poliomyelitis, tetanus, typhoid, yellow feverCholera, Hep B, Japanese encephalitis, rabies
CambodiaHep A, tetanus, typhoid yellow feverCholera, Hep B, Japanese encephalitis, rabies
VietnamHep A, tetanus, typhoid yellow feverCholera, dip, hep B, Japanese encephalitis, rabies
IndonesiaDiptheria, Hep A, tetanus, typhoid, yellow feverCholera, hep B, Japanese encephalitis, rabies
AustraliaNone. Yellow fever vaccination certificate required for travellers over 1 year of age arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission and for travellers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of yellow fever transmission, excluding Galapagos islands in Ecuador, the island of Tobago and limited to Misiones province in Argentina. The certificate of yellow fever vaccination is valid for 10 years in this country.Japanese encephalitis, tetanus
New ZealandNone. No yellow feverTetanus
Hong KongHep A. No yellow feverHep B, tetanus
JapanNone. No yellow feverHep B, Japanese encephalitis, tetanus, tick born encephalitis 
CanadaNone. No yellow feverDip, tetanus
USANone. No yellow feverTetanus
IcelandNone. No yellow feverTetanus


Vaccines that are free on the NHS from your local surgery because they protect against diseases that are thought to represent the greatest risk to public health if they were brought into the country include travel vaccines diphtheria polio tetanus (combined booster ), Hep A, typhoid, cholera.

Yellow fever vaccination is only available privately, and also Hep B when not combined with Hep A, Japanese enc, rabies, TB are also vaccines that need to be paid for privately. Yellow fever vaccine are only available from designated centres. NaTHNaC website can help you find a clinic offering yellow fever vaccination.

The cost of travel vaccines at private clinics will vary but could be around £50 for each dose of a vaccine. If possible see your GP at least 8 weeks before you travel, some vaccines need to be given well in advance to allow your body to develop immunity.

Also there are some vaccines that are not routinely available to everyone on NHS, but are available to people who fall into certain risk groups, eg people with long term health conditions eg Hep B, TB vaccine.

Answered by the Health at Hand nurses

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